IoT Technologies | CompTIA Network+ N10-007 | 1.5b

In this video you will learn about technologies that facilitate the Internet of Things (IoT) such as: Z-Wave, ANT+, Bluetooth, NFC, IR, RFID, & 802.11 WiFi.

IoT Technologies


Z-Wave is a wireless communications protocol used primarily for home automation.  It is a mesh network using low-energy radio waves to communicate from appliance to appliance, allowing for wireless control of residential appliances and other devices, such as lighting control, security systems, thermostats, windows, locks, swimming pools and garage door openers.  Like other protocols and systems aimed at the home & office automation market, a Z-Wave system can be controlled via the Internet from a smartphone, tablet or computer, and locally through a smart speaker, wireless key fob, or wall-mounted panel with a Z-Wave gateway or central control device serving as both the hub controller and portal to the outside.  Z-Wave provides the application layer interoperability between home control systems of different manufacturers that are a part of its alliance.



ANT+ is a wireless protocol for monitoring sensor data such as a person’s heart rate or a car’s tire pressure, as well as for controlling systems such as indoor lighting and television sets. ANT+ is designed and maintained by the ANT+ Alliance, which is owned by Garmin. It is based on the ANT protocol.



Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard used for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances using short wavelength UHF (ultra high frequency) radio waves in the industrial, scientific & medical radio bands, from 2.400 to 2.485 GHz, and building personal area networks (PANs).


Bluetooth can be used to do the following:

  • Connect to wireless speakers, mice, keyboards, printers, and game controllers
  • Transfer files between devices
  • Control home security or automation devices
  • Integrate your smartphone with your car’s audio or navigation system

The process of connecting two Bluetooth devices to each other requires the following settings:

  • Bluetooth must be enabled on both devices.  Bluetooth can be turned on or off on computers, tablets, and smartphones.
  • The computer, smartphone, or tablet must be discoverable.  Depending on the operating system and device, this option may be turned on automatically when you turn on Bluetooth.
  • The device must be paired.
Enabling Bluetooth

There are 3 Bluetooth power classes, but most Bluetooth devices use Class 2 radios.

Bluetooth Power/Distance Classes

NFC (Near-Field Communication)

Near-field communication is a set of communication protocols that enable 2 electronic devices, one of which is usually a portable device such as a smartphone, to establish communication by bringing them within 4 cm of each other.  NFC enables smartphones to be used for payment services such as Apple Pay, Samsung Pay, and others. NFC also enables file transfer between supported devices. To transfer files between smartphones with NFC, both smartphones must have NFC enabled and an NFC file transfer utility enabled, such as S Beam (Samsung smartphones) or Android Beam (Android smartphones).  Once that is enabled, simply tap the phones together to transfer files. NFC can also be used with compatible printers for tap-to-print capabilities.

Near-Field Communication

IR (Infrared)

Infrared (or infrared light) is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than those of visible light. It is therefore generally invisible to the human eye, although IR at wavelengths up to 150 nanometers from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions. If your smartphone can be used to control your TV, it has an IR blaster onboard. Normally this feature is designed for use with TV and home theater remote control apps rather than for data transfer.

IR Blaster

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)

RFID uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. An RFID tag consists of a tiny radio transponder; a radio receiver and transmitter. When triggered by an electromagnetic interrogation pulse from a nearby RFID reader device, the tag transmits digital data, usually an identifying inventory number, back to the reader. This number can be used to inventory goods.

RFID Technology

There are two types:

  • Passive tags: Powered by energy from the RFID reader’s interrogating radio waves.
  • Active tags: Powered by a battery and thus can be read at a greater range from the RFID reader (up to hundreds of meters).

Examples of RFID technology:

  • Security badges that allow doors to be unlocked in a secure environment, giving access to some while denying use to others.
  • Some items for sale have RFID tags used for identifying the item name & price. The badges on the items broadcast their information to a checkout reader which could allow for customers to simply walk out of the door and the items are counted, priced, and paid for by just simply walking past the reader.
  • Passports & other identification documents could also have RFID information embedded in them as well (think of RFID-chipped dog collars to locate missing dogs.

802.11 a/b/g/n/ac

802.11 and 802.11x refers to a family of specifications developed by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers) for wireless LAN (WLAN) technology.  802.11 specifies an over-the-air interface between a wireless client and a base station or between two wireless clients. These standards are commonly known as Wi-Fi or Wireless Ethernet.  Any Wi-Fi device contains a radio, and like an AM/FM radio, the radio in a Wi-Fi has a specific range of frequencies it can tune into. Some versions of Wi-Fi use a series of radio frequencies starting at 2.4GHz, where others use as series of radio frequencies starting at 5GHz.  Some devices support both ranges of frequencies. Either range of frequencies are divided into 20MHz-wide channels that can sometimes be grouped or bonded together into 40MHz-wide or 80MHz-wide combinations. Not all Wi-Fi devices can connect with any Wi-Fi device. The reality is that there are two wireless frequency bands used for Wi-Fi as well as differences in the number and width of wireless channels, differences in how signal interference is handled, and difference in security options.  All of these factors must be taken into account, especially when you’re adding wireless devices and network adapters to an existing network.

The 5 WiFi standards:

802.11b: maximum speed of 11Mbps operating in the 2.4GHz frequency band with a maximum indoor range of 35m.

  • 802.11a: maximum speed of 54Mbps using the 5GHz frequency band with a maximum indoor range of 35m.
  • 802.11g: maximum speed of 54Mbps operating in the 2.4GHz frequency band with a maximum indoor range of 45m.  It is backward compatible with 802.11b.
  • 802.11n: maximum speed of 150Mbps when using a single 20MHz channel, or it can run at up to 300Mbps with channel bonding (40MHz channel).  Operates in the 2.4GHz frequency by default, but it can also support 5GHz frequencies as well.  802.11n has a maximum indoor range of 70m. Supports MIMO (multiple input multiple output) antennas to improve performance and range, although not all devices include multiple antennas.
  • 802.11ac: uses only the 5GHz band and supports up to 80MHz-wide channels compared to 20MHz for 802.11b/g and 40MHz for 802.11n using channel bonding.  Supports multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO).  The speed of 802.11ac is up to 433Mbps per stream when 80MHz-wide channels are used.
Wireless Ethernet Standards